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ACCOUNTING - Corporate non-financial reporting / assurance / auditing; Company law; Corporate governance

 


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Accounting links (International & national accounting organisations, EU, UK, USA, Canada, Australia, etc.). PAGEREF _Toc364529380 \h 400

 

International organisations. PAGEREF _Toc364529381 \h 400

 

European Union / European countries. PAGEREF _Toc364529382 \h 414

 

United Kingdom (UK) PAGEREF _Toc287203280 \h 342

 

USA, Canada, Australia, India ... PAGEREF _Toc287203281 \h 351

 

Other PAGEREF _Toc287203282 \h 373

 

 

Big international accounting and auditing firms. PAGEREF _Toc287203283 \h 377

 

 

Collections of company financial reports. PAGEREF _Toc287203284 \h 380

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

Accounting links (International & national accounting organisations, EU, UK, USA, Canada, Australia, etc.)

 

 

International organisations

 

 

 

·         IASB International Accounting Standards Board - Website of the IFRS Foundation and the IASB > e.g.

o        Standards developments >

§         Work plan for IFRSs >

·         Management Commentary > e.g.

o        IFRS Practice Statement (9 December 2010; .pdf has 32 pp.) - Management Commentary: A framework for presentation

§          Management commentary is one of the most interesting parts of the annual report. It provides management with an opportunity to add context to the published financial information, and to explain their future strategy and objectives. It is also becoming increasingly important in the reporting of non-financial metrics such as sustainability and environmental reporting.

§          The publication of this Practice Statement will benefit both users and preparers by enhancing the international consistency of this important source of information.

§          :

·          ... That type of commentary will help users of the financial reports to understand, for example: also

o         (c) how non-financial factors have influenced the information presented in the financial statements.

·          … Management commentary should set out the critical financial and non-financial resources available to the entity and how those resources are used in meeting management’s stated objectives for the entity.

·          … Management commentary should include a clear description of the entity’s financial and non-financial performance, the extent to which that performance may be indicative of future performance and management’s assessment of the entity’s prospects.

·          … Management should provide an analysis of the prospects of the entity, which may include targets for financial and non-financial measures.

·          … Management should disclose performance measures and indicators (both financial and non-financial) that are used by management to assess progress against its stated objectives.

o        Exposure draft (June 2009; .pdf has 34 pp.)

§          On 23 June 2009 the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) published for public comment a proposed non-mandatory framework to help entities prepare and present a narrative report, often referred to as management commentary.

§         

·         Comment letters

o         Comments were due by 1 March 2010, the comment period has now closed.

o        Discussion paper (October 2005; .pdf has 96 pp.)

§          »The Board asked the Financial Reporting Standards Board (FRSB) of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand to provide staff to lead the project. The UK Accounting Standards Board (ASB), the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA) and the Deutsches Rechnungslegungs Standards Committee e.V. (DRSC) were asked to provide staff to assist with research and drafting.«

 

 

 

 

 

 

·        IFAC International Federation of Accountants > e.g.

o        About IFAC >

§         IFAC Committees:

·        Professional Accountants in Business (PAIB) > e.g.

o       Activities and Interest Areas > e.g.

§         Governance and Ethics

§        Sustainability and Corporate Responsibility >> e.g.

·         Project and Investment Appraisal for Sustainable Value Creation: International Good Practice Guidance (29 November 2012)

·         Investor Demand for Environmental, Social, and Governance Disclosures: Implications for Professional Accountants in Business (6 February 2012; .pdf has 30 pp.)

o        See also related article at Accounting Today: Accountants Pressed to Provide Non-Financial Information (6 February 2012; By Michael Cohn)

·        IFAC Sustainability Framework 2.0 (March 2011; .pdf has 98 pp.) >

o       Business Strategy Perspective

o       Operational Perspective

o       Reporting Perspective

§         Business Reporting

·         Integrating the Business Reporting Supply Chain (March 2011) - A report based on recommendations from key business leaders from around the world

·         In the final phase of this project, the project group interviewed 25 key business leaders from around the globe on what should be done to improve corporate governance, business reporting, and auditing in the aftermath of the financial crisis. > see

o        Financial Reporting Supply Chain: Themes 1 (June 2010) – 5 (March 2011)

·         In response to the report, Financial Reporting Supply Chain: Current Perspectives and Directions (March 2008), IFAC established a project group to study progress in the areas of governance, financial reporting, and auditing aimed at meeting investor needs. Its first output, Developments in the Financial Reporting Supply Chain-Results from a Global Study among IFAC Member Bodies was issued in February 2009. This study indicated that, although some progress had been made, several significant issues remain unresolved.

o        Meetings

o        >> 

§         PAIB eNews is an electronic communication issued three to four times per year. - Also »Topics Related to Sustainability«

§         Issues & Insights >

·        Governance & Sustainability: also

o       Recent Governance & Sustainability Resources

§         Publications & Resources > e.g.

·        Issues & Interest Area:

o       Governance & Sustainability

§         News & Events > e.g.

·        Issues & Interest Area:

o       Governance & Sustainability

·         >> e.g.

o         IFAC Issues Policy Position Paper on Enhancing Organizational Reporting (11 October 2013; .pdf has 8 pp.) - … to emphasize the importance and usefulness of reporting broad-based information beyond that which is provided in traditional financial reporting.

o         Integrating Good Governance Leads to Sustainable Success (25 October 2012) >

§          Integrating Governance for Sustainable Success (.pdf has 44 pp.)

o         Changing Roles and Employer Expectations Define Areas of Competency for Professional Accountants in Business (9 August 2011) >

§          Competent and Versatile: How Professional Accountants in Business Drive Sustainable Organizational Success (.pdf has 27 pp.)

·          This paper aims to support the global accountancy profession in responding to changing expectations of society, financial markets, and organizations, and to promote and contribute to the value of professional accountants in business to their organizations.

·          It does this by:

o         Reviewing significant macroeconomic and societal challenges. Key challenges include moving to a model of sustainable economies and corporate responsibility where organizations pursue a more sustainable and ethical path; balancing the need for compliance with the need to remain competitive within an increasingly global economy; and the long-term affordability and accountability of public services. …

o         IFAC and the Prince’s Accounting for Sustainability Project Collaborate to Promote Sustainable Organizations (4 May 2010; (A4S))

§          ... entered into a memorandum of understanding ...

§          Key priorities to support the work of professional accountants in embedding sustainable practices include:

·          Raising awareness and facilitating sharing and collaboration across the global accountancy community, ...

·          Establishing an international integrated reporting committee ... (IIRC)

·          Incorporating accounting for sustainability within professional training and education.

o         Sustainability and the Role of Professional Accountants in Business Subject of Two New IFAC Papers (29 August 2006)

§          The first information paper, Why Sustainability Counts for Professional Accountants in Business (.pdf has 11 pp.), provides an overview of enterprise sustainability and sets out the business case for addressing the risks and opportunities of sustainable development at the enterprise level. It also discusses the ways in which professional accountants in business, especially those working for organizations with significant environmental or social impacts, will be involved with the measurement, recording and interpretation of sustainability-related information.

§          Professional Accountants in Business - At the Heart of Sustainability? (.pdf has 43 pp.), the second paper, provides first-hand commentary from eleven senior professionals working in various enterprises around the world on the role of PAIBs and the challenges they face in promoting and implementing sustainable development strategies.

o         IFAC Consultation Paper Explores Assurance Aspects of Proposed Sustainability Reporting Guidelines (9 February 2006)

o       

§         IFAC Global Knowledge Gateway (accountancy news, views, resources) >

·         Business Reporting > also

o        Resources > also

§         Topic Subcategories: also

·         integrated reporting

·         non-financial reporting

·         sustainability reporting

·         Ethics

·        Sustainability > also

o        Resources > also

§         Topic Subcategories: also

·         accounting for sustainability

·          corporate social responsibility

·         natural capital valuation and measurement

·         sustainability assurance

·         sustainability management

·        sustainability reporting

·          sustainability strategy

·          sustainable development

o       

§         Independent Standard-Setting Boards:

·         Auditing and Assurance = IAASB International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board

o       

§        Search: IFACnet

·         IFACnet "spiders" (or searches) the publicly available sections of participating websites - generally IFAC members, associates and related organization. It sorts, indexes and filters thousands of documents and web pages and returns a list of the items most relevant to your search query.

 

 

 

 

 

 

·         UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development >>

o       ISAR Corporate Transparency Accounting (Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting)

§         »The objective of ISAR is to promote the transparency, reliability and comparability of corporate accounting and reporting as well as to improve disclosures on corporate governance by enterprises in developing countries and countries with economies in transition.«

§         > e.g.

·        

o       Publications: e.g.

§         2010 Review of the Implementation Status of Corporate Governance Disclosures: An Inventory of Disclosure Requirements in 22 Frontier Markets (.pdf, 14 October 2010, 28 pp.)

§          Investment and Enterprise Responsibility Review - Analysis of investor and enterprise policies on corporate social responsibility (.pdf, 1 September 2010, 96 pp.; Prepared by Anthony Miller and Jem Bendell)

·          Launched at Sustainable Stock Exchanges 2010 (part of the World Investment Forum, 6-9 September, 2010, Xiamen, China)

§         International Accounting and Reporting Issues 2008 Review (.pdf, 2010, 174 pp.)

§         2009 Review of the implementation status of corporate governance disclosures: an inventory of disclosure requirements in 24 emerging markets (.pdf, 8 October 2009, 21 pp.)

§         2009 Review of the implementation status of corporate governance disclosures: an examination of reporting practices among large enterprises in 12 emerging markets (.pdf, 6 October 2009, 23 pp.)

·         Areas of Work > e.g.

o       Corporate Governance Disclosure

§         The aim of this project was to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition in identifying and implementing best corporate governance practices to achieve better transparency, financial disclosure and accountability.

§         > e.g.

·         Guidance in Good Practices in Corporate Governance Disclosure (.pdf, June 2006, 52 pp.)

o         This guidance is a technical aid for regulators and companies, particularly in developing countries and transition economies. The purpose of the guidance is to help those responsible for preparing company reports to produce disclosures on corporate governance that address the major concerns of investors and other stakeholders.

o         UNCTAD draws upon recommendations for corporate governance disclosure contained in documents from other international organizations and national governments, as well as the deliberations of the ISAR. For reference purposes, the guidance also contains a list of national and international resources on corporate governance disclosure.

o        > e.g.

§         Chapter 2: Non-Financial Disclosures > also »Material Issues Regarding Stakeholders, and Environmental and Social Stewardship«

·          an issues paper on implementation of corporate governance disclosure requirements (.pdf, 2003, 17 pp.)

·         five case studies on implementation of corporate governance disclosure (2003; Brazil, France, Kenya, the Russian Federation, the United States)

·          Selected Issues in Corporate Governance: Regional and Country Experiences (.pdf, 2003, 65 pp.)

o       Corporate Responsibility Reporting > e.g.

§         Guidance on Corporate Responsibility Indicators in Annual Reports (2008; .pdf has 66 pp.)

·          ... UNCTAD extends special appreciation to Nancy Kamp–Roelands from Ernst & Young, Netherlands for acting as Chairperson of the ISAR Consultative group that worked on this project between 2004 and 2007...

·          … The objective of this guidance, which has been developed with reference to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Guidelines and the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), is to provide detailed guidance on the preparation of reports using the selected indicators…

§         2008 review of corporate responsibility reporting

§         2008 review of the corporate responsibility performance of large emerging market enterprises

§         Disclosure of the Impact of Corporations on Society (2004; .pdf has 121 pp.)

o        Environmental Accounting and Reporting >

§         Eco-efficiency Indicators

·         ISAR Sessions, Topics and Documents > e.g.

o        27th session (Geneva, 13–15 October 2010)

§         Co-organized with: The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC): Accountancy Summit on Corporate Governance Reform Looks Beyond the Global Financial Crisis

·         Professor Mervyn King, author of the King Code on Corporate Governance, was the keynote speaker.

·         With an eye to helping prevent future financial crises, they collectively supported the following points: also

o         The accountancy profession has a key role to play in strengthening corporate governance and facilitating the integration of governance and sustainability into the strategy, operations, and reporting of an organization.

o         Boards should be focused on the long-term sustainability of their businesses. As such, corporate governance reform must include strengthening board oversight of management, positioning risk management as a key board responsibility, and encouraging remuneration practices that balance risk and long-term (social, environmental, and economic) performance criteria.

·         Publications >

o       Environmental, Social and Governance Disclosure

o       

§         Meetings >>

·         Intergovernmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting, thirtieth session (6-8 November 2013) >

o        Documents >

§         Best practice guidance for policymakers and stock exchanges on sustainability reporting initiatives (.pdf, 28 August 2013, 23 pp.; Or here (.pdf))

o         >> 

§          UNCTAD's Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development (IPFSD; Launched on 26 July 2012)

o         >> 

§         Corporate Governance in the Wake of the Financial Crisis: Selected international views (February 2011; .pdf has 184 pp.)

·         See also

o        related article at SocialFunds: Will Corporate Governance Reform Become Reality? (8 March 2011) - A report from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) documents corporate governance failures that led to the financial crisis and provides recommendations for reform.

 

 

 

 

 

 

·         IOSCO International Organisation of Securities Commissions

 

 

 

 

·         INTOSAI International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions >>

o        Working Group on Environmental Auditing

 

 

 

·         IRCA International Register of Certified Auditors > e.g.

o        Certification programs > e.g.

§         Sustainability assurance practitioner

 

 

 

 

·         ICGN International Corporate Governance Network > e.g.

o        Committees >

§         Integrated business reporting committee

 

 

 

 

·         HRH The Prince of Wales (UK) >> e.g.

o        Accounting for Sustainability Project (A4S) >

§         Accounting Community >

·        Accounting Bodies Network (ABN) > also

o       ABN resources and upcoming events

§         >> 

·         Accounting for Sustainability Community

 

 

 

 

·        <IR> Integrated Reporting (IIRC - International Integrated Reporting Council)

o         Integrated Reporting demonstrates the linkages between an organisation’s strategy, governance and financial performance and the social, environmental and economic context within which it operates. By reinforcing these connections, Integrated Reporting can help business to take more sustainable decisions and enable investors and other stakeholders to understand how an organisation is really performing.

o         The Prince’s Accounting for Sustainability Project (A4S) and the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) announced the formation of the International Integrated Reporting Committee (IIRC) on Monday 2nd August 2010.

o         The IIRC, is a powerful, international cross section of leaders from the corporate, investment, accounting, securities, regulatory, academic and standard-setting sectors as well as civil society.

o         Mission Statement: To create a globally accepted integrated reporting framework which brings together financial, environmental, social and governance information in a clear, concise, consistent and comparable format. The aim is to help with the development of more comprehensive and comprehensible information about organisations, prospective as well as retrospective, to meet the needs of a more sustainable, global economy.

o         The principal role of the IIRC is to:

§          reach a consensus among governments, listing authorities, business, investors, accounting bodies and standard setters for the best way to tackle the challenges of Integrated Reporting

§          identify priority areas where additional work is needed and provide a plan for development

§          develop an overarching Integrated Reporting framework, which sets out the scope and key components of Integrated Reporting

§          consider whether standards in this area should be voluntary or mandatory

§          promote the adoption of Integrated Reporting by relevant regulators and report preparers

o        Note: About »integrated reporting« see in the first place dedicated page at nfrcsr

 

 

 

 

 

·         PwC PricewaterhouseCoopers >>

o       Corporate reporting

o       PwC corporate reporting blog (by Charles Bowman since 2012, before by David Phillips)

o       World watch: Governance and corporate reporting (newsletter, containing also »Broader reporting«, »Corporate Reporting News«) > e.g.

§         Corporate Reporting

 

 

 

 

·         Deloitte >>

o       IAS Plus > also

§         Resources >

·        Sustainability and integrated reporting

 

 

 

 

·         CRUF Corporate Reporting Users’ Forum

o         The CRUF was formed in 2005 as a discussion forum with the aim of helping its participants in their approach to the debate on current and future corporate reporting requirements. In particular, participants are keen to have a fuller input into the deliberations of the International Accounting Standards Board.

o         See also

§          Article at RI Responsible Investor: Plea for pension funds to engage on reporting standards (25 May 2010; By Daniel Brooksbank)

 

 

 

 

·         GRI Global Reporting Initiative > e.g.

o       

§         Resource Library >> e.g.

·         2013 edition: Carrots and Sticks: Sustainability reporting policies worldwide – today’s best practice, tomorrow’s trends (.pdf, 24 May 2013, 96 pp.) - Overview of mandatory and voluntary approaches to sustainability reporting and assurance

o        Project Partners: UNEP, GRI, KPMG and The Centre for Corporate Governance in Africa at the University of Stellenbosch Business School in South Africa

o        The first edition of Carrots and Sticks covered developments in 19 countries, and the second in 32 countries. This third edition covers 45 countries and regions.

o        Information >

§         Current Priorities > e.g.

·         Integrated Reporting

o        See also

§         YouTube GRITV's Channel >> e.g.

·         The Future of Reporting - Do Accountants Get It? (9 Parts; Amsterdam GRI Conference, May 2010)

·         Financial Markets Main Hall Session - Helping markets make sustainable choices (9 Parts; Amsterdam GRI Conference, May 2010)

 

 

 

 

·         City A.M. >>

o        Rio summit is a game changer for accountants’ role in businesses (13 June 2012; By John Davies, ACCA) - Corporate strategies will have to embrace green requirements

 

 

 

 

·         CSRwire >

o        CSR Directory >

§         Search Category:

·         Accounting Associations & Networks

 

 

 

 

 

·         OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development > e.g.

o        Topics > e.g.

§         Corporate Governance

§          Environment

§          Green growth and sustainable development

o        >> e.g.

§         Guidelines for multinational enterprises (also here)

 

 

 

·         World Bank >

o        Topics >> e.g.

§          Corporate Governance = Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)

§         Private Sector Development > e.g.

·         Toolkits >

o        Corporate Governance

 

 

 

·         IFC International Finance Corporation >

o        Topics A-Z >

§         Corporate Governance

 

 

·         GCGF Global Corporate Governance Forum (OECD / WB Partnership)

o        »Helping countries improve the standards of governance for their corporations, by fostering the spirit of enterprise and accountability, promoting fairness, transparency and responsibility.«

 

 

 

·         GURN The Global Union Research Network > e.g.

o        Topics >

§         Corporate Governance

 

 

 

·         CorpGov.net (since 1995; Editor of Site: James McRitchie; Emphasis on USA) > also

o        Links+

 

 

 

·        Governance Focus (Blog)

o        »A governance location focused on corporate and board governance, ethics, development and social responsibility. Information is obtained from many sources for a wide range of information, opinion and debate.«

 

 

 

·         CSRwire »The Corporate Social Responsibility Newswire« > e.g.

o        More Information >

§         Categories:

·        Corporate Governance: News Items

·         Corporate Governance: CSRlive (articles, video, audio and commentary)

o       CSR Directory

§         A searchable online resource guide listing more than 2,700 organizations working on all aspects of corporate social responsibility in 105 countries.

§         > e.g.

·         Search Category:

o       Corporate Governance Orgs & Programs

 

 

 

 

 

 

·         The Centre for Corporate Governance in Africa at the University of Stellenbosch Business School (Bellville; South Africa) >

o        Current Projects >

§         Making Investment Grade: The Future of Corporate Reporting - New trends in capturing and communicating strategic value (2012; .pdf has 142 pp.)

·         Published by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Deloitte and the Centre for Corporate Governance in Africa (University of Stellenbosch Business School)

·         This report provides a collection of contributions from twenty internationally recognised experts in the fields of corporate reporting, investment and governance.

 

 

 

·         Ceres (Boston, USA) > e.g.

o        Resources >

§         Reports >

·         The Quiet Revolution in Business Reporting (May 2007; .pdf has 10 pp.; By Allen White)

o        This report discusses the limitations of business reporting under today's accounting rules...

 

 

 

·          VMRC Value Measurement Reporting Collaborative is a coalition of thought leaders assembled to develop global principles for value measurement and reporting (VMR).

o        Affiliated with the VMRC of Canada, the NPI New Paradigm Initiative seeks to revisit and update conventional accounting in accordance with contemporary value drivers that are largely absent from conventional financial reports.

 

 

 

·          ECL European Company Law (Kluwer Law International BV, Netherlands)

o         published under the aegis of the Centre for European Company Law (CECL), an academic partnership of the Universities of Leiden, Utrecht and Maastricht, the Netherlands

o         >> e.g.

§          Article: Can the G20 Include Sustainability Reporting in the Agenda of All of the World 20 Largest Economies? (.pdf, August 2012, 11 pp.; By Alexandra Duarte Correia; At CBERN)

 

 

 

·          Economie teoretica si aplicata = Theoretical and Applied Economics > e.g.

o         Arhive > 2007 > Nr. 11 / 2007 >

§         New Perspectives on Corporate Reporting: Social-Economic and Environmental Information (By Camelia Iuliana Lungu, Chirata Caraiani & Cornelia Dascalu; .pdf has 6 pp.)

 

 

·         SSRN Social Science Research Network > e.g.

o        Corporate Governance Network (Sponsored by IRRC Institute (IRRCi))

§         >> 

·         Corporate Governance Research Centers Papers

§         >> 

·         Social Reporting and New Governance Regulation: The Prospects of Achieving Corporate Accountability through Transparency (2005-?, work in progress; By David Hess, Ross School of Business, University of Michigan)

 

 

 

·          International Standards Project

o         By: Professors Tim Büthe & Walter Mattli (Duke & Oxford Universities)

o        

§          Assessing the IASB: Results of a Business Survey about International Financial Reporting Standards and IASB's Operations, Accountability, and Responsiveness to Stakeholders (.pdf, 2008, 36 pp.)

·          »The first comprehensive business survey specifically about IFRS and IASB standardization«

·          The survey was conducted among financial executives—mostly CFOs and chief accounting officers—of companies listed on the major stock exchanges of the United States (NYSE), Germany (Frankfurt), France (Paris-Euronext) and the United Kingdom (London). 749 of these corporate finance experts, representing firms from all industries, participated in the survey.

 

 

 

 

 

·         RI Responsible Investor

o        Note: From 25 April 2011 Responsible Investor is only accessible to paying subscribers.

o        >> e.g.

§         Keywords: Governance

 

 

 

 

 

European Union / European countries

 

 

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United Kingdom (UK)

 

  

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USA, Canada, Australia, India ...

 

 

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Other

 

 

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Big international accounting and auditing firms

 

 

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Collections of company financial reports

 

 

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